Bibliography – People and Places

Addleton, Jonathan S. (2013). Mongolia and the United States: A Diplomatic History. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

ISBN: 978-9888139941

Former U.S. Ambassador to Mongolia Jonathan Addleton seeks to shed light on the little-known history of U.S.-Mongolian relations in this new volume in the ADST-DACOR Diplomats and Diplomacy Series. While the two countries did not formally open embassies until 1987, they have been interacting for more than 150 years. Nested between Russia and China, Mongolia is often overlooked. But as the author notes, much like the United States, Mongolia was once a great power born out of decisive leadership and the unification of various peoples. For this reason, U.S.-Mongolian relations have grown deep and fruitfully positive. The author makes use of his extended time and experience in the region to give the book a personal flavor. As a result, it reads more like a historical narrative than a political piece. Readers searching for a simple history of the ties between the two countries, rather than a critique, will enjoy this.

Jonathan S. Addleton, a career USAID FSO, was U.S. ambassador to Mongolia from 2009 to 2012 and USAID country director there from 2001 to 2004. He received the Polar Star, Mongolia’s highest honor for foreign civilians, in 2012 for his work in strengthening ties between the United States and Mongolia. Amb. Addleton is, as of 2015, USAID/India Mission Director and has previously served as USAID mission director in India, Pakistan, Cambodia, Mongolia and Central Asia.

Bibliographer’s note: At a December, 2015 book talk in Washington sponsored by the UAA, Amb. Addleton commented that the State Department clearance for this book required 32 signatures and took longer than it took him to write the book.

Addleton, Jonathan S. (1992) Undermining the Center: The Gulf Migration and Pakistan. Karachi:  Oxford University Press.

ISBN-10  019577418; 0ISBN-13  978-0195774184.

Addleton analyzes in detail the impact that large-scale migration from Pakistan to the Middle East during the late 1970s and 1980s had on the sending country.  More than one million Pakistani workers found employment in the Middle East during this period and the remittances that they sent back were both an important source of foreign exchange and a catalyst for change, affecting in unexpected ways not only the economics but also the political and social life of the country. The inter-disciplinary approach adopted in this book makes it useful across several fields of study, including economics, political science, international relations and sociology.  The first such book-length study to focus specifically on Pakistan, it also contributes to a broader understanding of how migration and remittance networks operate as well as how large-scale migration typically has a transformative effect, not only on individual migrants but also on the societies from which they come.

Cole, David C and Princeton N. Lyman (1971). Korean Development: The Interplay of Politics and Economics. Harvard University Press.

ISBN 9780674497351.

While both were at Harvard’s Center for International Affairs in 1967, Cole and Lyman agreed to collaborate on a book that would describe and analyze the interplay of economics and politics in connection with South Korea’s recent emergence as a rapidly development county. Cole later stated that this book, along with Practical Approaches to Development Planning: Koreas’ Second Five-Year Plan, edited by Irma Adelman (Johns Hopkins Press, 1969) provided a balanced and realistic depiction of both Korea’s rapid development and the role that the planning process had played in mobilizing support for the government and propelling the country down the path of export-led economic growth.

David Cole’s first engagement with the Far East involved working on a tractor project in North China in 1946-47 for the United Nations. He next was sent to Korea with the US Army, 1951-52, where he was assigned to the United Nations Civil Assistance Command, Korea, and traveled widely throughout the country analyzing industrial conditions. He served in USAID/Washington and returned to Korea in 1964-66, as Senior Economist with the USAID Mission, working closely with Korean economic officials on formulation of economic policy and preparation of the Second Five Year Plan. In the 1970s he assisted Dr. Kim Mahn-Je with the establishment of the Korean Development Institute. He received an AB degree in Far Eastern Studies at Cornell University, 1950, and a Ph.D in Economics at University of Michigan in 1959. He taught at Vanderbilt University, 1958-62, and was affiliated with the Harvard Institute for International Development (HIID) and the Economics Department at Harvard from 1966 to 1994. He was an advisor to the Indonesian Government on economic and financial policies throughout his time with HIID and was a consultant to many Asian and African countries. He taught courses on Modernization of Korea and Financial Policy for Developing Countries at Harvard.

Cole, David C. and Dr. Betty F. Slade. Building a Modern Financial System: The Indonesian Experience. (1996). Cambridge Univ. Press.

ISBN 10: 05216750887.

A standard reference work on Indonesian financial development, this book provides historical scope, both comprehensive coverage and institutional depth of detail and insightful, very balanced political analysis and assessment of the process over the past thirty years. It provides penetrating insights into the upheavals in Indonesia, and explains the kinds of policies that can lead to the development of a modern financial system in a large, relatively underdeveloped country. The study covers all facets of the financial system, emphasizing the role of the monetary authorities, the transition from government-dominated to a predominantly private banking system, and the rapid expansion of the capital market. Indonesia is a particularly interesting case because its economy and financial system was in shambles in the mid-1960s owing to political adventurism and economic mismanagement. Until more recently sensible economic policies and growth-promoting reforms provided a sound financial system and a balanced expansion of agriculture and industry. However since the mid-1990’s the stability of the Indonesian system has once again been called into question.

Cole, David C. and Youn Chui Park. Financial Development in Korea,1945-1978. (1983). Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University.

ISBN 0674301471.

This study, undertaken jointly by the Harvard Institute for International Development and the Korea Development Institute, has twin objectives: to examine the elements underlying the remarkable growth of the Korean economy and the distribution of the fruits of that growth, together with the associated changes in society and government; and to evaluate the importance of foreign economic assistance, particularly American assistance in promoting these changes.

Cole, David C. and Richard Huntington. (1997). Between a Swamp and a Hard Place: Developmental Challenges in Remote Rural Africa. Harvard Kennedy School.

ISBN: 0674068610.

In a remote area of Sudan, the Abyei project embodies the idealistic hoes of the “new directions” for development and of the late 1970s and early 1980s. Within this optimistic context, Harvard Institute for International Development was invited to assist the leaders of the Ngok Dinka People in development their homeland. The goal wss to discover and implement interventions that would benefit the local population in a sustainable manner. This book traces the project’s evolution and analyzes its successes and failures as the region slipped toward civil disorder and inter-ethnic violence. The authors also document the continued relevance of the development principles that animated this effort- including strong participation by the intended beneficiaries which are still important for aching economic growth in rural Africa.

Denton, Frank, Harvey A. Averch, and John E. Koehler. (19712). The Matrix of Policy in the Philippines. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

ISBN: 978-0691620169

Based on a USAID funded Country Study, the book provides a detailed statistically oriented study of the Philippines – political system, economic system, crime, insurgency and local values. Perhaps of greatest interest is the data presented from a nationwide sample survey of political values, attitudes toward crime and politics based on answers from 1500 respondents.

Frank Denton has had a career of 50 years in defense and foreign affairs. After a time with the defense industry, he joined RAND and the foreign service (USAID). He served in Afghanistan, Egypt, Jordan, Malaysia, Philippines and Washington, and has retired to do research in the Philippines. He has published extensively in several different fields, but concentrated on patterns and trends in the political use of warfare.

Denton, Frank. (1979). Lighting Up the Countryside, The Story of Electric Cooperatives in the Philippines. Manila, PHL: Development Academy of the Philippines. Places

LCCN: 81185333   ASIN: B00J66ZTHS

The Philippines is one of the first developing countries to undertake a really massive rural electrification effort. This book is an attempt to document the early experiences of this electrification program. It discusses the successes and the dead ends. It dwells on the approaches that appear to have worked and discusses the guidelines developed to 0strengthen the program. Particular attention is given to cooperative development.

Denton, Frank. (1983). Wood for Energy and Rural Development the Philippine Experience. Self-published.Places

Following the First Oil Crisis the Philippines, highly dependent on imported oil, sought to develop two alternative electric energy sources: mini hydro and wood fired power plants. The programs were undertaken on a crash basis with inadequate technical knowledge. This book looks in some detail at the plantations of fast growing, coppicing trees that were developed to fuel the wood fired power plants. The book documents the early experiences in farmers cooperatives and the successes and failures in tree planting.

Denton, Frank and Victoria Willena-Denton. (1986). Filipino Views of America: Warm Memories, Cold Realities. Manila: Asia Fellows Ltd.

ISBN: 978-0961728700

As the colonial years faded from memory, Filipinos’ views of America changed. This book based on interviews with 100 plus Filipinos, from former presidents, politicians and opinion leaders and businessmen, down through activist youth to janitors and laborers, allows Filipinos to speak for themselves about their evolving attitudes toward America. Then Philippine ambassador to America Emmanuel Peleaz endorsed the book as a “must read.”

Denton, Frank. (1993). Transforming the Philippines into a NIC: Newly industrialized country.  Manila. Asia Fellows Ltd. Places

ISBN: 978-9718923009

This book written as the Asian economic miracle reached a climax suggests several innovations that the Philippines could adopt to bring its economy more into line with the Newly Industrializing Countries (NICs) of Asia. The book retraces the elements of success in the high growth Asian economies. Then it examines the Philippine economy before presenting suggestions that could enable the Philippines to begin to emulate Korea, Taiwan and others.

Denton, Frank. Knowing the Roots of War, Analysis and Interpretations of Six Centuries of Warfare, 2001, Self Published, available.

The analysis of patterns and regularities in warfare, though out the world contained in this book is based on statistical analyses of just over 1000 incidents of warfare that occurred between the 15th century and today. Perhaps, given today’s environment, the chapters comparing wars involving Christian groups with those of Islamic groups will be of greatest interest. Attention is also given to the long term apparent constant level of warfare incidents (number) until industrialization brought on a warfare surge. One finding that seems rather discouraging is that firing the first shot has produced less success than did waiting for the other party to shoot first.


Denton, Frank. Collected Essays on Six Centuries of Warfare, 2002, Self Published, available.

This smaller volume takes the finding from “Analysis and Interpretations” and incorporates them into five essays on a variety of patterns and regularities such as “Trends in Values in Warfare” and “Islam may not be so bloody.” Based on these essays a think piece is presented regarding lessons in the use of warfare which might be of use to the leaders of the world.

Denton, Frank. Amazing Story of the Electrification of the Philippine Countryside.

The four books identified below cover one story –  the “Amazing Story of the Electrification of the Philippine Countryside.” That story will be of interest to USAID personnel because the four volumes document an unmatched American development success. They trace the origins of the program back to President Roosevelt’s Depression prodded American Cooperative managed rural electrification program. The story moves on to initiatives by Presidents Kennedy and Johnson and the leadership shown by NRECA which lead to an American financed and largely managed pilot project involving two Philippine Electric Cooperatives. On the success of these two pilots the Philippine’s took control under the leadership of Pedro G Dumol and brought reliable, reasonably priced electrical services to 10 million consumers or 50 million Filipinos (half today’s population). The volumes give first hander accounts of the massive struggle to maintain integrity and efficiency in an environment familiar with neither parameter. Those first handers acknowledge the critical roles that USAID and NRECA played in getting this program off the ground and on the road to massive success. Pedro Dumol with courage and genius took the American initiative and made it a world acknowledged Philippine Success story. These volumes are dedicated to Pedro (now deceased).

The author wrote the first AID loan paper in 1970 and has maintained involvement with the program until today. This Trilogy plus one culminates his work of 50 years in development assistance. Limited copies are available.

Denton, Frank. From Farm to Internet, A Tale of Rural Electrification, 2014, Frank and Maya Denton, Self Published, available


Denton, Frank. The Vision of Light, The Pedro Dumol Story, 2014, Frank and Maya Denton, Self Published, available.

Denton, Frank. The Philippine Rural Electrification Program, The Early Years, co-author, 2014, Self Published, available.

Denton, Frank. A Leap Forward, Book Four on the Impact of Rural Electrification, 2015, Maya and Frank Denton Self Published, available

Denton, Frank and Maya Denton as told by Pedro G. Dumoi. (2014). The Philippine Rural Electrification Program, The Early Years. Self-published.

Denton, Frank and Maya Denton. (2014). The Vision of Light, The Pedro Dumol Story. Self-published.

Denton, Frank and Maya Denton. (2015). Leaping Ahead with Electricity, Barangay Hugom. Self-published.

Eberly, Don. (2009). Liberate and Leave: Fatal Flaws in the Early Strategy for Postwar Iraq. London, UK: Zenith Press.

ISBN: 978-0760336809

Liberate and Leave is full of valuable lessons for diplomats, soldiers and aid workers. In it, Don Eberly, an expert on civil society and economic development who served as a senior adviser to General Jay Garner and, later, to Ambassador Paul Bremer during the earliest phases of the Iraq operation, shows “how unprepared [the U.S.] was to shoulder the burden of constructing a democracy.” Among other things, he cites the conflicting loyalties and confused reporting systems at State and the Pentagon. A key change Eberly advocates for U.S. stabilization and reconstruction policy is to raise the priority of strengthening civil society. A premature rush to democracy — without first building broad multiethnic voluntary associations that inculcate democratic habits — actually sets back the goals of democratization, Eberly argues. In his view, that is one of the critical omissions from the original plan for Iraq. Prior to his service in Iraq, Don Eberly was senior counselor for international civil society at USAID. He is a consultant on economic development.

Grant, Stephen H. (1995). Former points of view: Postcards & literary passages from pre-independence Indonesia. Jakarta, IDN: Lontar.

ISBN: 978-9798083228

This beautifully illustrated book by Stephen Grant, with its reproductions of old postcards and literary excerpts from colonial times, gives from to an era now gone forever. As with a family photograph album, this book offers readers an opportunity to leaf through pictures of sometimes familiar, sometimes forgotten faces and former points of views.

Grant, Stephen H. (1999). Postales Salvadorenas del Ayer, 1900-1950 (Spanish and English Edition). San Salvador, SLV: Fundacion Mari­a Escalon de Nunez.

ISBN: 978-9992320013

This bilingual book tells the history of Salvadoran postcards from 1900 to 1950. It gives details about the importers and their families, with vivid descriptions of the places where the photographs were taken. It captures the country’s atmosphere at the time.

Harbeson, John (2017). Africa in World Politics: Constructing Political and Economic Order, 6thedition, Westview Press.

The book addresses the challenges of building economic and political order in Africa in the midst of major Chinese and other G-20 engagement  emerging state-led development strategies, sustained economic growth juxtaposed to continued evidence of democratic decline and state fragility. It asks the central question of prospects for sustainable African well-being as the sustainable development goals campaign begins.

                   John W. Harbeson is professor of political science emeritus in the City University of New York. He has also taught at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies and the George Washington University Elliott  School of International Affairs. From 1979-1982 he was a social science analyst in USAID’s Bureau of Science and Technology focusing on strengthening rural development participation. From 1993-1995 he was USAID’s regional democracy and governance advisor for eastern and southern Africa. His research on land reform in newly independent Kenya and Revolutionary change in post-Haile Selassie Ethiopia prepared him for his first USAID assignment as an IPA. His second assignment as a PSC on African democratization has been the major focus of his research and teaching ever since.


Harbeson, John (2016).  Coping with Crisis in African States (ed., with Peter Lewis),

Lynne Rienner Publishers.

                      The essays in this book identify fundamental security, governance, and

economic viability challenges as they have been dealt in contemporary crisis situations with

varying effectiveness in seven African states

Harbeson, John (2013). Africa in World Politics:  Engaging a Changing World Order, 5th edition

(ed., the late Donald Rothchild, co-editor, previous editions), Westview Press.

                      The book centers on Africa’s position in a rapidly changing international

and political order featuring the emergence of the BRICS, their competition with each other in African setting, rapid early 21st century economic growth in many African countries, diminished by still high levels of inequality and poverty in these countries, and continued state fragility.


Harbeson, John (2008).  Africa in World Politics:  Reforming Political Order, 4th edition

(ed., with Donald Rothchild) Westview Press.

                      The book focuses on Africa’s receding marginalization in world politics,

noting both the resulting costs and benefits, the residual influences of the continent’s

colonialism and first decades of post-colonial history, and profound challenges to sustaining

significant progress.


Harbeson, John (2000). Africa in World Politics: The State System in Transition, 3rd edition (ed., with Donald Rothchild) Westview Press.

A decade of post-Cold War democratization in Africa has been accompanied by widespread political conflict exposing the fragility of African states, putting the state system itself in flux, testing the meaning and viability of the territorial state itself in this new era.

Harbeson, John (1994).  Civil Society and the State in Africa (ed., with Naomi Chazan and Donald Rothchild), Lynne Rienner Publishers.

                       A centerpiece in the history of democratic political philosophy, the essays

In this book are among the first to examine its applicability, meaning, and importance to the prospects for post-Cold War democratic reform Movements in Africa.


Harbeson, John (1994). Africa in World Politics:  Challenges of the Post-Cold War Era,

2nd Edition. (ed., with Donald Rothchild), Westview Press.

                      In the mid-1990s as post-Cold War democratization heralds an era of significant

political renewal, stalled economic reform, humanitarian crises, violent conflict reflecting as well

as caused by state weakness are among the major threats undermining its prospects.


Harbeson, John (1993). Responsible Government:  The Global Challenge.  (ed. With Raymond Hopkins and David Smith).  University Press of America.

                      The book centers on the manifold problems of defining and establishing

responsible governance as demanding attention in international as well as domestic settings in

a post-Cold War world, including essays on interfaces of governance and economic reform.

Harbeson, John (1991). Africa in World Politics.  (ed., with Donald Rothchild), Westview Press.

                      As the post-Cold War era dawns, the concerns of formerly marginalized sub-

Saharan Africa take on new importance. The book traces the evolution of Africa’s participation

in world politics, centering on issuesopportunities emerging from restructuring of Africa’s

participation in an emerging world order.


Harbeson, John (1988). The Ethiopian Transformation:  The Quest for the Post-Imperial State.  Westview Press.

                     The book examines the course of Ethiopia’s transition from feudal, Imperial rule to

Marxist military dictatorship that hijacked a genuine civilian revolution, leaving the quest for a

modern state still elusive. The book examins alternatives for rescuing genuine land reform in

these circumstances.

Harbeson, John. (1987). The Military in African Politics.  (ed.)  Praeger.

                    The essays in this book examine the important roles played by civilian

political leaders in African countries ruled by the military, exposing important similarities in patterns of governance as well as divergences between military and civilian rule in the region.


Harbeson, John (1975). Rural Development in Ethiopia (co.edited with Paul Brietzke) African Studies Center,  Michigan State University.

                    The book examines the background to, design, and early implementation of Ethiopia’s  land reform granting land to tenants of former feudal landlords  coinciding with the termination of Haile Selassie’s rule.


Harbeson, John (1973). Nation-Building in Kenya: The Role of Land Reform.  Northwestern University Press.

The purchase and redistribution to landless Africans of European

farms coincided with Kenya’s post-Mau Mau rapid transition to independence from 1960 to 1963. The book examines the issues and controversies involved in those inter-related transitions.

Heilman, Lawrence C. USAID in Bolivia: Partner or Patron?. (2017) First Forum Press.

ISBN-13. 978-1626374362.

After Bolivia had received more than $4.7 billion from the US government to support 70 years of development efforts, why would its President, Evo Morales, abruptly expel USAID from the country in May 2013? The answer, alleges Lawrence Heilman, is rooted in a complex slice of history beginning with US assistance to Bolivia during World War II.

Heilman explores that history from the perspectives of both the US and Bolivia, presenting a tapestry of mutual benefits and conflicting interests. He appraises the ideas and personalities that determined US foreign aid policies/programs across successive administrations; the political and economic context that shaped Bolivia s development aspirations; and the goals/strategies of the AID mission in Bolivia that guided its decisions about specific projects. The result is an in-depth picture of USAID in one country, but also important insights into US aid policy overall.

In his initial USAID orientation, Heilman was told that USAID was “an Agency without a memory.” This motivated him later to want to tell the story of USAID’s history in Bolivia as a case study of US foreign assistance.  In particular, he sought to address three issues:  (1) the role of AID/Washington and State in policy leadership; (2) the documented history of USAID in Bolivia as part of a historical and political process; and (3) an assessment of how successful USAID had been in Bolivia.  Based on records in the National Archives, he found that in the 1950s, Bolivia was the largest recipient of US assistance in South America.  He noted evidence of important Bolivian successes in the 1950s, especially in agriculture, education and health. He highlighted the pivotal role of the 1952 revolution as the point of departure for development, since it allowed Bolivian peasants to own land, exercise their vote, and seek education.  From 1955 on, the US maintained a close partnership with Bolivia, until the administration of President Evo Morales.

Lawrence C. Heilman is research associate in the Anthropology Department at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. He served twenty years with USAID in Nepal, Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, Bolivia, and Burkina Faso as a foreign service officer. Larry lives in Chevy Chase, MD.

Hendrix, Steven E. (2009). The New Nicaragua: Lessons in Development, Democracy and Nation-Building for the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger.

ISBN: 978-0313379581

The New Nicaragua is an intriguing blend of history, political analysis and autobiography covering a turbulent two-year period in modern Nicaraguan history, from June 2005 to June 2007. After three years in Washington, USAID Foreign Service officer Hendrix, a self-described “field type,” headed out to respond to the emerging challenge in Nicaragua. The issues involved corrupt government, undemocratic elections and conniving political leaders. Hendrix arrived just as Daniel Ortega returned to the Nicaraguan presidency and U.S. policy shifted, in Hendrix’s words, “from right versus left to right versus wrong.” As Hendrix describes it, his time in Nicaragua presented a mixed bag of solutions. Though less overtly antagonistic than Ortega had been 25 years earlier, his administration still lacked transparency, and corruption was still a problem. But The New Nicaragua also offers a happier lesson. Hendrix says that he “hopes any reader of this work will see that we did have a major impact in Nicaragua in promoting democracy.” And in difficult circumstances, such as those described in this book, that’s certainly a promising outcome.

Huston, Sam. (2013). Thirsty for Peace: the Water Sector in South Sudan. Abington, UK: Earthscan-Routledge.

ISBN: 978-1849712323

Sam Huston is a Water Resources & Infrastructure Associate with particular expertise working in fragile and conflict impacted environments. Mr. Huston has ten years of experience working on water supply, sanitation, utility management, climate change and water resource management in Afghanistan, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda. Currently based in Nairobi, he is the Deputy Chief of Party for USAID’s Sustainable Water and Sanitation in Africa (SUWASA) program. Previously, Mr. Huston was a technical expert for USAID’s African and Latin American Resilience to Climate Change (ARCC) project and served as a technical advisor and manager for USAID’s Afghan Sustainable Water Supply (SWSS) project. Mr. Huston spent nearly four years working in South Sudan, first as the Program Coordinator for Pact Sudan’s Water for Recovery and Peace Program, and then as the Water and Sanitation Advisor for USAID/Sudan.

Klaits, Alex. (2006).  Love and War in Afghanistan (2006).  Love and War in Afghanistan.  


Love and War in Afghanistan presents true stories of fourteen ordinary men and women living in Northern Afghanistan, faced daily with their own vulnerability during a quarter-century of uninterrupted war. The book tells their stories, putting a human face onto a country torn by war.

Kropf, John W. (2006). Unknown Sands: Journeys Around the World’s Most Isolated Country. Houston, TX: Dusty Spark Publishing.

ISBN: 978-0976356516

For centuries, Turkmenistan was the world’s most feared territory, the fierce nomadic tribes of its vast desert wastes deemed ungovernable. Today the country is independent, sits atop one of the planet’s largest natural gas reserves, and is strategically located between the hot spots of Afghanistan and Iran — but is still virtually unknown. This book begins to bring this remote country to life in a most engaging way. The author skillfully blends his own two-year adventure there with the history of Turkmenistan to present an insightful and accessible profile of the country and its people — from the bazaars to the ancient Silk Road and Oxus River, the country’s unique brand of Islam and the post-9/11 confrontation with the Taliban.

FS spouse John W. Kropf served in Turkmenistan as country director for USAID from 2000 to 2002. A government attorney specializing in international law, he had worked at the State Department for eight years prior to his wife’s posting to Ashgabat. He is currently director of international privacy programs at the Department of Homeland Security. His creative nonfiction and humor articles have appeared in the Foreign Service Journal, Washington Post and South Florida Sun-Sentinel.

Lyman, Princeton (2002). Partner to History: The U.S. Role in ‘South Africa’s Transition to Democracy.

ISBN-13. 978-1929223367.

A remarkable book about a remarkable time, Partner to History reveals the role played by U.S. diplomacy in South Africa’s surprisingly successful transition from apartheid to democracy. Princeton Lyman, the U.S. ambassador during the transition, makes clear that America didn’t “own” the transition process-the South Africans did. But U.S. involvement was active and intense. And it made a difference.

Princeton Lyman is best known as a former ambassador to Nigeria (1986-89) and South Africa 1992-95) and as U.S. Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan from 2011-2013. . However, he began his international career with USAID as a program officer in Korea, as Africa Bureau Director for Project Development and mission director in Ethiopia from 1976 to 1978.

Lyman, Princeton (co-editor) (2006). Beyond Humanitarianism: What you need to know about Africa and Why it Matters. Council on Foreign Relations.

ISBN 978-0-87609-371-9.

This citizen’s guide to the complex issues and conflicts on the continent clarifies what’s at stake in Africa’s future. It addresses underlying trends—such as the growth of democracy, the rising activity of China, and the political and economic prospects for the countries of Africa, as well as regional conflicts and terrorist threats there—and provides an absorbing look at Africa’s emergence as a strategic player.

Moffat, Abbot Low. (1961). Mongkut, the King of Siam. Cornell Univ Press.

ISBN-10:0801490693 ISBN-13:978-0801490699

Mongkut was king of Siam from 1851-1868. He is best known as the king who befriended and later betrothed an English schoolteacher – the source of the King and I musical.

Abbot Moffat was an attorney and a state legislator before joining the foreign service.  He served as chief of the American Mission for Aid to Greece in Athens and Washington in 1947; then worked with foreign aid operations in London and Rangoon. He later worked for the World Bank in Washington and ICA in Accra.

Mundi, Tomas. Modern Paraguay: Uncovering South America’s Best Kept Secret. (2021). McFarland and Company.

ISBN: 97814766480 – paperback

Drawing on many interviews this book provides a timely assessment of Paraguay’s strengths, challenges and developmental outlook, and their implications for the world. Among other things, Mandi demolishes the myth that Paraguay was over run by Nazi-imitators, nothing that is authoritarian tendencies are homegrown and existed long before World War II.

Tomas Mundi was born in Virginia and raised in Uruguay. He is currently a program officer for the Center for International Private Enterprise and previously worked in three U.S. Embassies while accompanying his wife, Laura, a USAID Foreign Service officer.


Nicholson, Michael W. (2021). Shattered Chasm: The Lighter Side of Living in Liberia. Independently Published.

ISBN: 9798463155962.

The stories Michael Nicholson has collected reflect the professional and personal experiences he acquired during a 2-year posting as a USAID Economist in Liberia. The chasm in the book’s title reflects the chasm of culture, politics and history between citizens of Western countries and the poorest of the poor.

Mr. Nicholson joined the Foreign Service in 2010 as an economist and has served in Liberia, Pakistan, Kenya and now Ghana. Prior to joining USAID, he was a USAID contractor in Armenia and Egypt.


Muscat, Robert J. (1994). The Fifth Tiger: Study of Thai Development Policy.  M.E. Sharpe.

ISBN: 9280808435

Thailand’s dynamic economic development has earned it a reputation as the “Fifth Tiger” (following on the heels of the superperforming “Four Tigers” – South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong). This is a study of Thailand’s development experience since 1955.

Natsios, Andrew S. (2002). The Great North Korea Famine: Famine, Politics and Foreign Policy. Washington, DC: US Institute of Peace.

ISBN: 978-1929223336

A government-created famine killed approximately three million North Koreans between 1994 and 1999. Andrew Natsios was vice president of World Vision U.S. at the time, and worked to organize an international response to the crisis in the face of Pyongyang’s largely successful efforts to cover up the full extent of the crisis. Natsios has drawn on a wide range of sources, including interviews with North Korean refugees, to write this gripping account of the politics of humanitarian aid.

Andrew Natsios directed the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance at USAID from 1989 to 1991 and served as Assistant Administrator for the Bureau for Food and Humanitarian Assistance (now the Bureau of Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance) from 1991 to January 1993. From 1993 to 1998, Natsios served as Vice President of World Vision U.S. Natsios was sworn in as the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). While serving as Administrator, he also served as Special Humanitarian Assistance Coordinator for Sudan and U.S. Government Coordinator for International Disaster Assistance. He resigned from USAID on January 14, 2006. President Bush appointed him Special Envoy for Darfur in 2006.[3] He retired as special envoy in 2007 and now teaches at Texas A&M.

Natsios, Andrew. (2012). Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

ISBN: 978-0199764198

Informative and accessible, this book introduces readers to the most central issues facing Sudan as it stands on the brink of historic change.

Nicholson, Michael W. (2021). Shattered Chasm: The Lighter Side of Living in Liberia.

Independently Published. ISBN:  9798463155962

The stories Michael Nicholson has collected reflect the professional and personal experiences he acquired during a 2-year posting as a USAID Economist in Liberia. The chasm in the book’s title reflects the chasm of culture, politics and history between citizens of Western countries and the poorest of the poor.

Mr. Nicholson joined the Foreign Service in 2010 as an economist and has served in Liberia, Pakistan, Kenya and now Ghana. Prior to joining USAID, he was a USAID contractor in Armenia and Egypt.

Nighsonger, William A. (1966). Rural Pacification in Vietnam. Praeger


Mr. Nighswonger was also co-author of War Without Guns: American Civilians in Rural Vietnam.

Away from the roar of planes and the exploding of bombs, a different, quiet war was being waged in Vietnam. It was a war waged by USAID’s USOM (U.S. Operations Mission) which sent an advisor into each province of Vietnam to conduct rural economic development. It was s war for better living standards, better health, and better education. It was a war to rebuild a shattered economy. The authors tell of their experiences while working among the villagers in that war-torn country helping to build schools, construct village wells, introduce new farming practices, and rebuild crumbling social and political structures.

Orr, Steven D. (2012). The End of the Civil War in El Salvador: 1992”. America Star Books.

ISBN-10: 1462672477

In “The End of the Civil War in El Salvador: 1992,” Orr recounts his multiple visits to the country throughout the civil war.  As one reviewer states: “The fact that he was present during the beginning and the end makes his experience one that readers can rely upon for complete closure on the time during the civil war about which most people don’t even know.  Documentation of specific events and dates during which major turning points occurred are evidence that Steven has done his homework to back up what he has seen with his own eyes in a country ravaged by political corruption and carnage. Readers will experience eye-opening truths that prove the resilience of Salvadorans during more than a decade of destruction and oppression.  Steven had the privilege of witnessing the end of such atrocities, but his visits throughout the years of war remind readers that the victory did not come without its share of sacrifice and violence.”

See biographic notes in Memoirs section.

Panehal, Alexi. (2021). The Island in Winter:  Living Year Round on Kelley’s Island. Univ of Toledo Press. 


Alexi Panehal and her family had been coming to Kelley’s Island for more than 60 years. During her youth, virtually every summer weekend was spent at the family’s cottage on the island. Decades later, with a successful USAID career behind her, Alexi weighed her retirement options and decided to make Kelleys Island her home year round. While Kelley’s is only a few miles from the mainland, living on the little Lake Erie island during the winter requires meticulous planning and preparation to avoid costly, and potentially dangerous situations.

In The Island in Winter, Alexi discusses the various aspects of island life, from the quirky to the cantankerous, the generous to the genial, and everything in between. She comments on the aspects of summer life, when the island is inundated with fair weather visitors and residents, as well as the stark seclusion the winter months can bring. This is a great book for people interested in life on one of Lake Erie’s very special islands.

Alexi Panehal is a retired Senior Foreign Service Officer who worked for the USAID for over 35 years. She was born and raised in Cleveland. She earned an undergraduate degree from Georgetown University’s School of Foreign Service and graduate degrees from Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government and the National Defense University, National War College.  Alexi spent 14 years in Latin American missions, serving in Honduras, Nicaragua and as Mission Director in both Ecuador and the Dominican Republic.  She also served in Thailand, Tunisia, Eastern Europe and the NIS Regional Mission, and the Regional Mission for Ukraine, Moldova and Belarus, located in Kyiv, Ukraine. The Island in Winter is her first book.

Phillips, Rufus C. III.  Stabilizing Fragile States:  Why it Matters and What To Do About It.


This book, and its 2008 predecessor, Why Vietnam Matters: An Eyewitness Account of Lessons Not Learned, were written by Rufus C. Phillips III, who passed away in December 2021 and who was head of Rural Affairs for USAID/Vietnam beginning in 1962. The Foreign Service Jpuirnal reviewer says that Phillips, who absorbed Edward Lansdale’s experience and wisdom, was one of America’s most creative foreign policy thinkers. He argued for a new approach to dealing with failed and fragile states – described in this book and still a topic very much on USAID’s collective mind.

Renahan, Thomas M. (2017). The Struggle for Iraq: A View from the Ground Up. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

ISBN 10:161234883243/ISBN 13: 9781612348827.

The Struggle for Iraq is a vivid personal account of the Iraqi people’s fight for democracy and justice by an American political scientist. Thomas M. Renahan arrived in southern Iraq just three days before the capture of Saddam Hussein in 2003. Later he worked in Baghdad through the dark days of the country’s sectarian violence and then in Iraqi Kurdistan. One of the few Americans to serve in all three major regions of Iraq, he spearheaded projects to develop democratic institutions, promote democracy and elections, and fight corruption.

With inside accounts of two USAID projects and of a Kurdish government ministry, this engrossing and cautionary story highlights efforts to turn Baathist Iraq into a democratic country. Renahan examines the challenges faced by the Iraqi people and international development staff during this turbulent time, revealing both their successes and frustrations. Drawing on his on-the-ground civilian perspective, Renahan recounts how expatriate staff handled the hardships and dangers as well as the elaborate security required to protect them, how Iraqi staff coped with the personal security risks of working for Coalition organizations, and the street-level mayhem and violence, including the assassinations of close Iraqi friends.

Renahan emphasizes that reconciliation is still the end game in Iraq. In the concluding chapters he explains how the United States can support this process and help resolve the complex problems between the Iraqi government and the independence-minded Kurds, offering hope for the future.

Dr. Renahan describes himself as one of thousands of foreign civilians who joined the struggle for Iraq. Arriving soon after the Coalition invasion in 2003. he joined a small civilian army of American, British, and other expatriates deployed to help transition Iraq toward more democratic and more effective government, improve living standards, and rebuild much of its infrastructure. A political scientist and former city manager, he did three tours in Iraq, funded by USAID, one in each of its three major areas: southern Iraq, Central Iraq (Baghdad), and Kurdistan, departing in 2014. He presently lives in Greenbelt, Maryland.

Resnick, Sol. (2001). Irrigating India: My Five Years as a USAID Advisor. Milwaukee, WI: PrintStar Books.

ISBN: 978-0970653130

Resnick worked in India from 1952-1957 as a USAID irrigation advisor.

Ross, Robert. (2018). Mission Possible: The Latin American Agribusiness Development Corporation. Routledge Press.

ISBN-10: 9781138512269

The Latin American Agribusiness Development Corporation (LAAD) was one of many initiatives taken at the height of the Cold War to alleviate poverty in countries threatened by communist insurgencies. Its mission was to promote rural development by funding local agribusiness enterprises to create new permanent jobs and new economic activity. In Mission Possible, Ross, president of LAAD from 1972 to 1998, gives a richly detailed insider’s account of the company’s first three decades. Originally capitalized with a little over $2 million, to date LAAD has provided over $300 million to 700 projects, generating tens of thousands of new jobs and new annual exports of $500 million. Always profitable, it has paid a dividend for twenty years. Its capitalization has grown to over $30 million by reinvesting most of its earnings in Latin America. LAAD had to contend with an often unsettled political environment; it could not simply stand on the sidelines and wait for conditions to improve. Indeed in a broader sense LAAD’s mission was to help improve those conditions. Students of economic development and international business management will learn much from the story of how this unique experiment grew into a dynamic enterprise.”[Ross] offers innumerable studies [in Mission Possible] of investment projects that stimulated the commercial production of agricultural produce in the region. He recounts the frustrating negotiations with uncomprehending central bankers and the difficulties of developing marketing and other infrastructural networks that are so important for assuring the success of any business, and is pleased with what he identifies as the two most significant changes that profoundly affected agriculture: the decline in the role of the state in Latin America and in protectionism in the industrialized world. … He stresses the fundamental roles that innovative entrepreneurs can play, taking advantage of opportunities created by organizations like LAAD, and using market information to reduce uncertainty.

Robert L. Ross, a Harvard-educated development economist, has worked for forty years in Latin America and worked as a consultant to USAID for many years.  He taught economics at the Latin American Economic and Social Planning Institute in Santiago, Chile and worked on the first development plans in Haiti and Paraguay. He was president of the Latin American Agribusiness Development Corporation from 1972 until his retirement in 1998.

Rugh, Andrea B. (1986). Reveal and Conceal: Dress in Contemporary Egypt (Contemporary Issues in the Middle East). Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

ISBN: 978-0815623687

(USAID spouse) An exciting study of clothing as a complex cultural expression, this book analyzes contemporary social meanings found in the symbols of dress & shows the way groups & individuals use the symbols like a language to reveal or conceal significant aspects of their personal identities. The author traced the intricate patterns of clothing worn by rural migrants in a lower-class quarter of Cairo back to their origins in Upper & Lower Egypt. She studied the designs of apparel, concentrating primarily on women s dress because of its many variations both in style & meaning.

Rugh, Andrea B. (1997). Within the Circle: Parent and Children in an Arab Village. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

ISBN: 978-0231106795

When American anthropologist Andrea Rugh rented a room in a small Syrian village, hoping to find time to finish a book she was writing, she never expected to be drawn so deeply into the lives of her neighbors. But she developed close friendships with two households–those of her landlady and her landlady’s sister. For eight months Rugh observed and wrote about the lives of these two families and their ten children. The result is a uniquely intimate account of family life and child rearing in Middle Eastern society. Within the Circle is a detailed, vividly crafted portrait of families in a changing world, chronicling the day-to-day life among family members, between parents and children, and between families and the larger world of the village. The book results from the personal quest of the author to understand the cultural aspects of her own child rearing practices. She contrasts her experiences as an American mother raising three independent, self-sufficient boys with the experiences of village parents striving to form a closely-knit family unit.

Rugh, Andrea B. (2007). (spouse) The Political Culture of Leadership in the United Arab Emirates. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

ISBN: 978-1403977854

The book describes the impact of cultural perceptions on rulers’ behaviors in the United Arab Emirates, once the Trucial States. Despite differences in size, economic resources, and external political pressures, the seven emirates’ rulers utilized very similar cultural expectations to gain the support of others.

Rugh, Andrea B. (2011). (spouse) International Development in Practice: Education Assistance in Egypt, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

ISBN: 978-0230340176

(USAID spouse) Moving beyond theory and statistical analysis, this book provides a candid description of the problems practitioners face in the field. It simulates the experiences of a consultant-expert by reviewing education issues in developing countries and giving brief vignettes of the way these issues have been addressed in various countries. Finally, it describes three in-depth cases that show the studies, planning, and implementation that go into actual projects. These cases – in Egypt, Pakistan, and Afghanistan – are here written up for the first time, in a clear, easy-to-read style appropriate for students and development professionals in training.

Shakow, Alexander. (1964). Foreign economic assistance in Indonesia, 1950-1961. Tokyo, JP: Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

ISBN: unknown

Alexander Shakow had a distinguished career at the World Bank where he held various senior positions from 1981-2002, including Director of External Affairs and Executive Secretary of the Bank/Fund Development Committee. Since 2002, he has been an independent consultant for a number of international agencies such as UNICEF, FAO, and the Global Fund against AIDS, TB and Malaria as well as the World Bank and IMF. He has also served as Co-Director of the USAID Alumni Association. From 1968-1981, at the United States Agency for International Development, he was, inter alia, Assistant Administrator for Program and Policy; Director, Office of Development Planning, Asia Bureau; and Director of Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore Affairs. He was also a senior official of the United States Peace Corps from 1963-1967, including Director for Indonesia and Director of Volunteer Training. He received his PhD from the University of London/London School of Economics in 1962 and his undergraduate degree with honors from Swarthmore College in 1958.

Speidel, Dr. Joseph (2021). The Building Blocks of Health — How to Optimize Wellness with a Lifestyle Checklist. 

ISBN:  Unknown

Former Director of USAID’s Office of Population, Dr. Joseph Spidel, offers a sensible book on how to optimize wellness by offering a useful checklist on lifestyle choices.  He asserts that, by using the checklist, we can possibly add 10-15 years to life.  This is an oral history that can be found at the Smith College Sofia Smith Collection, as part of the Hewlitt Foundation-funded Population and Reproductive Health Oral History Project.  (Other USAID alumnae with oral histories in that collection of 42 sector leaders are Rei Ravenholt, Steve Sinding, Duff Gillespie, Elizabeth Maguire and Margaret Neuse.

Steinberg, David (editor) (2015). Myanmar: The Dynamics of an Evolving Polity. Lynne Rienner Publisher.

ISBN-13: 978-1626371811.

What issues will Myanmar need to address as it moves beyond the immediate complexities of a transition from an authoritarian state to a more pluralistic polity? How will the new government navigate the challenge, some new, some old, of increasing public participation, persistent coercive forces, economic transformation, ethnic tensions, varying conceptions of the role of law, and more? The authors of this forward-looking volume offer a careful, timely analysis of the kaleidoscopic array of changes occurring in Myanmar and consider the potential long-term impact of those changes for both the country and the region.

Professor David Steinberg joined USAID in 1976 serving first in the Central African Republic for 2 years. He later served as Director for Technical Assistance for Asia and the Middle East; Director for Philippines, Thailand, and Burma Affairs, and spent three years in Thailand with the Regional Development Office. He wrote extensively reviewing and evaluating previous AID programs while in USAID’s Center for Development Information and Evaluation. Before joining USAID, He was Representative of The Asia Foundation in Korea and Washington, D.C., and Assistant Representative in Burma and Hong Kong. He has resided for seventeen years in Asia, where he has conducted field studies and traveled widely.

Prof. Steinberg is a specialist on Burma-Myanmar, the Korean Peninsula, Southeast Asia and US policy in Asia. He is Distinguished Professor of Asian Studies at Georgetown University, and was for ten years director of Asia Studies there. Professor Steinberg was educated at Dartmouth College, Lingnan University (Canton, China), Harvard University, and the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.

Steinberg, David with Fan Hongwei. (2012). Modern China-Myanmar Relations: Dilemmas of Mutual Dependence. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, 2012. Pirated edition translated into Burmese and published in Yangon in 2014. ISBN-10: 8776940950

This volume examines the changing relations between China and Burma/Myanmar since Burmese independence in 1948 and the formation of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Using Chinese sources, it documents the negotiations and settlement of outstanding issues such as the border demarcation, the Chinese Nationalist forces in Burma, the status of the overseas Chinese residents, and the Burma Communist Party.

The study documents the Sino-Burmese riots of 1967, the improvement of relations, culminating in the close bilateral association since 1988–89. It analyses in detail Myanmar’s changing role in Chinese strategy, concentrating on trade and investment relations, oil, gas, hydroelectric power, natural resources and improved transportation. It outlines military cooperation, narcotics control, and migration while emphasizing Indian and ASEAN concerns and responses.

The volume outlines a set of policy dilemmas facing the central and provincial Chinese authorities, the Myanmar government and Burmese ethnic minorities, while analysing dilemmas for the United States, India, ASEAN and Japan in responding to the changed interdependent Sino-Burmese relationship.

Steinberg, David (2012). Burma/Myanmar: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press.

2nd expanded edition translated into Korean and published in Seoul. Translated into Burmese and published in Yangon (2014). ISBN-13: 978-0199981687

No country in Asia in recent years has undergone so massive a political shift in so short a time as Myanmar. Until recently, the former British colony had one of the most secretive, corrupt, and repressive regimes on the planet, a country where Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi was held in continual house arrest and human rights were denied to nearly all. Yet events in Myanmar since the elections of November 2010 have profoundly altered the internal mood of the society, and have surprised even Burmese and seasoned foreign observers of the Myanmar scene. The pessimism that pervaded the society prior to the elections, and the results of that voting that prompted many foreign observers to call them a “sham” or “fraud,” gradually gave way to the realization that positive change was in the air.

In this updated second edition of Burma/Myanmar: What Everyone Needs to Know®, Davd I. Steinberg addresses the dramatic changes in the country over the past two years, including the establishment of a human rights commission, the release of political prisoners, and reforms in health and education. More than ever, the history, culture, and internal politics of this country are crucial to understanding the current transformation, which has generated headlines across the globe. Geographically strategic, Burma/Myanmar lies between the growing powers of China and India. Yet it is mostly unknown to Westerners despite being its thousand-year history as a nation. Burma/Myanmar is a place of contradictions: a picturesque land with mountain jungles and monsoon plains, it is one of the world’s largest producers of heroin. Though it has extensive natural resources including oil, gas, teak, metals, and minerals, it is one of the poorest countries in the world. And despite a half-century of military-dominated rule, change is beginning to work its way through the beleaguered nation, as it moves to a more pluralistic administrative system reflecting its pluralistic cultural and multi-ethnic base. Authoritative and balanced, Burma/Myanmar is an essential book on a country in the throes of historic change.

Steinberg, David (editor). (2010). Korea’s Changing Roles in Southeast Asia: Expanding Influence and Relations. Singapore. Institute of Southeast Asia Studies.

“Although Korea and the ASEAN countries have had a very close relationship since achieving independence in the 1940s and 1950s, systematic reviews of that relationship are alarmingly scarce due to the preoccupation of scholars, both Korean and Southeast Asian, with more urgent issues surrounding the country and the region. The consequence of this situation is the limited academic capacity of both Korea and the ASEAN countries to ponder past, present and future bilateral relations, which, if managed well, might have contributed to mutual interests. The chapters, including the introductory one by David I. Steinberg, provide a useful and diverse portrait of the current status of the Korea-ASEAN relationship. The authors of the chapters are prominent scholars who have conducted research on the topics covered and are very familiar with the current situation. Therefore, this book is a good first guide for researchers interested in the relationship, as well as those new to the topic” (Pacific Affairs).

Steinberg, David (2006). Turmoil in Burma: Contested Legitimacies in Myanmar. New York. EastBridge Press.

ISBN-13: 978-1599880013

An authoritative examination of the peoples and the issues competing for the mantle of legitimacy in this strategically-sited country. With his decades of successful service in government and academia, David Steinberg provides powerful insight into the nuanced issues and global sensitivities of Burma’s complex and fluid situation.

Steinberg, David (2002). Stone Mirror. Reflections on Contemporary Korea. New York. EastBridge Press.

ISBN-13: 978-1891936128

The transformation of the Republic of Korea from an impoverished state to a leading industrialized nation has been spectacular, but it has also masked the continuities of Korean society and culture. For more than four decades, David I. Steinberg has been observing Korea and is uniquely qualified to write on the evolution of modern Korea. As the resident representative of The Asia Foundation in 1963-1968 and then again in 1994-1998, he has been a participant in and close observer of the Korean scene. His trenchant comments on a broad spectrum of Korean life and mores illuminate many aspects of Korean society most often ignored in both the academic and popular literature. The short essays selected for this volume come from the over 230 columns he has published in the Korea Times since 1995. They present a series of vignettes on the cultural, socioeconomic, and political life of Korea today.

Trained first in Chinese studies and then in Southeast Asian history, Steinberg has lived in a variety of Asian countries over the past 17 years. He brings to this book a comparative focus that provides deeper perspective on Korean affairs. Because he personally experienced Korea at both an early stage of its growth and a much later period, he is able to report changes in the society in a manner that few other foreigners have been able to do.

Steinberg, David (2001). Burma: The State of Myanmar. Washington DC, Georgetown Univ. Press.

Steinberg, David (1989). The Republic of Korea. Economic Transformation and Social Change, Boulder. Westview Press.


A concise and comprehensive survey of East Asia’s fast-developing but little understood nation. Emphasizes recurring social and historical themes; considers changes of the postwar era, examines its importance to the US, discusses the Korean national character, looks at the future.

Steinberg, David (1982). Burma. A Socialist Nation of Southeast Asia. Boulder Westview Press

Steinberg, David (1981). Burma’s Road toward Development: Growth and Ideology Under  Military Rule. Boulder, Westview Press.

Thier, J. Alexander  (2009). The Future of Afghanistan. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.

Institute of Peace link:

Alex Thier was in 2013-15 USAID’s assistant to the Administrator for Policy, Planning, and Learning (PPL). The PPL Bureau is USAID’s center for policy development, strategic planning, learning and evaluation, and partner engagement. From  June 2010- June 2013, Thier served as assistant to the administrator for Afghanistan and Pakistan affairs, overseeing USAID’s two largest missions in the world. Before joining USAID, Thier served with the U.S. Institute as senior rule of law advisor and director for Afghanistan and Pakistan from 2005-2010.

Warne, Robert, George K. Tanham, William A. NIghswonger, and Earl J. Young. (1966). War without Guns: American Civilians in Rural Vietnam. Praegar. New York.

ASIN: B0000CN0K1     

Away from the roar of planes and the exploding of bombs, a different, quiet war was being waged in Vietnam. It was a war waged by USAID’s USOM (U.S. Operations Mission) which sent an advisor into each province of Vietnam to conduct rural economic development. It was s war for better living standards, better health, and better education. It was a war to rebuild a shattered economy. The authors tell of their experiences while working among the villagers in that war-torn country helping to build schools, construct village wells, introduce new farming practices, and rebuild crumbling social and political structures.

  1. Robert (Rob) Warne spent part of his youth in Iran and Brazil as his father, William Warne, was Point IV director in those countries. Rob served with USAID in Vietnam as an advisor in Vinh Binh and Vinh Long in the Mekong Delta where he lived in Tra Vinh with his wife, who taught in the local high school, and his young daughter. Two colleagues were Dick Holbrook and Tony Lake. He then transferred to the State Department for a lengthy career that included assignments in Argentina, Brussels, Kingston and Paris. He retired in 1988.

Warne, William E. (1956) Mission for Peace-Point 4 in Iran. Bobbs-Merrill; republished via Ibex (1999).

IBSN 0936347848/9780936347844.

In 1951, President Harry S. Truman asked William Warne to go to Iran to head the American development program, popularly known as Point 4. The program lasted through 1955. The program’s mission was to advise and assist in the economic development of Iran. Warne describes his impressions and interactions individuals such as the Shah, Mohammad Mossadegh, General Fazlollah Zahedi, Ardeshir Zahedi and Jamshid Amuzegar and others.

This is his recollection of a significant period in modern Iranian history. You see the necessary international agreements and contracts negotiated, the unavoidable red tape untangled or cut through, the broad obstacles to be surmounted-Iranian political crises, Soviet propaganda offensives, Yankee-go-home campaigns, the difficulties of working in rugged, often roadless country. You see the technicians at work on practical problems at practical levels, often small problems and quite local –for example, stopping typhoid in a village by helping the villagers to purify their water supply, or improving the local scrawny breed of chickens by air-lifting baby chicks from the U. S. The 1999 edition includes new photograph and a foreword by the author’s children.

William Warne was born on a farm in Seafield, Indiana and grew up on another farm in the Imperial Valley of California.  Prior to this assignment to Iran, was served 16 years and became an Assistant Secretary at the US Department of the Interior. Subsequent to his assignment in Iran, he was Point IV director in Brazil (1954-55) and U.S. Minister and Economic Coordinator for Korea (1954-59). The Korea mission was one of the largest in terms of staff and budget about $250 million annually. Subsequently he was Director of the Department of Water Resources for the State of California where he supervised the construction of 8 large coffers dams and 550 miles of canals that carried water from the north to the parched south. His son, Rob, reports that: “Dad greatly enjoyed his experiences with AID.  He was one of the authentic public administrators dedicated to advancing the nation’s interest.”

Wentling, Mark  (2020). Africa Memoir: 50 Years, 54 Countries, One American Life (Vol 1,2 and 3). Open Books

Retired Senior Foreign Service Officer Mark Wentling has worked in or visited all 54 African countries over the course of a half century. In these 3 volumes, he summarizes basic information and his personal thoughts, with fascinating details about each of these countries.

Mark Wentling was a Peace Corps Volunteer in Togo and later PC Director in Gabon and Niger. He joined USAID in 1977 and served in Niger, Guinea, Togo, Benin, Angola, Somalia and Tanzania. After retiring in 1996, he worked under contract as USAID”s Senior Advisor for the Great Lakes Region and as a consultant in Malawi, Senegal, South Africa and Zambia. Mark is a prolific writer, contributing to magazines and newspapers from his home in Texas.  

Winfield, Gerald Freeman, China, the Land and the People.(1948). Sloane Assoc…


Mr. Winfield was an ecologist, a teacher in China from 1933-48 and foreign service staff officer with ECA beginning in 1951 serving in Rangoon.

Young, Earl J (1 of 3 contributors along with Robert Warne and William Nighswonger–see above, to)  War Without Guns: American Civilians in Rural Vietnam.

Away from the roar of planes and the exploding of bombs, a different, quiet war is being waged in Vietnam. It is a war against hunger, want and mistery. It is war for better living standards, better health, and better education. It is a war to rebuild a shattered economy. The authors tell of their experiences while working among the villagers in that war-thorn country, pursuing the goal of rural development program. They tell of helping to build schools, construct villager wells, introduce ner farming practices, and rebuild crumbling social and political structures. Here is a story full of hope, optimism, and inspiration – the story of a WAR WITHOUT GUNS (less).

Earl Young served from 1967 to 1971 with USAID in Saigon and Vientiane as a foreign service reserve officer. Before joining the military. Involved primarily in counterinsurgency and special operations in Europe, Asia, Central and South America, he lived overseas for almost twenty-five years. He also served twice on the White House staff in the State Department and a number of tours of duty at the Pentagon. Colonel Young last served at the American Embassy in Rangoon, Burma. He has also appeared on the PBS Television Series “Vietnam – A History” and in the current. “The Peoples Century.”

Young, Stephen B. (2017). The Theory and Practice of Associative Power: CORDS in the Villages of Vietnam, 1967-1972. Hamilton Books.

ISBN-13: 978-0761868996

ISBN-10: 0761868992

Stephen Young spent 3 years in Vinh Long province as a FSO with USAID. His work with the Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support counterinsurgency program, is the basis of this book. His CORDS experience persuaded him that for the U.S. to achieve its national security objectives, it must apply associate power in place of both hard power and soft power. This approach entails the use of joint ventures and alliances to optimize the forms of power brought to bear in conflicts, responding with precision to a spectrum of threats, situational challenges and political opportunities.

Stephen Young served with the CORDS program in the Republic of Vietnam from 1967 to 1971 as a Deputy District Advisor in Vinh Long province and as Chief, Village Government Branch. Young’s service with CORDS was recognized by President Richard Nixon, Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker, and CIA Director William Colby. A fluent speaker of Vietnamese he has written on human rights in traditional Vietnam, Vietnamese legal history, Vietnamese nationalism, and with his wife translated Duong Thu Huong’s novel The Zenith into English. Young is a graduate with honors of Harvard College and Harvard Law School. He is a former Assistant Dean of the Harvard Law School and Dean and Professor of Law at the Hamline University School of Law. He is Global Executive Director of the Caux Round Table and the author of Moral Capitalism and The Road to Moral Capitalism.

Zuvekas, Clarence. Income Distribution and Poverty in Rural Ecuador, 1950-1979. (1983) Tempe: Center for Latin American Studies, Arizona State University. (Co-author with Carlos Luzuriaga C.)

This study reviews and interprets the literature on income distribution and levels of living in rural Ecuador during the period 1950-1979.  It identifies the poorest segments of the rural population and analyzes changes over time in their levels of living.  The study examines not only census data and macroeconomic evidence but also a variety of micro-level evidence, including studies written from the perspectives of anthropology, sociology, agricultural economics, geography, and other disciplines.  A multi-dimensional poverty indicator is constructed and used to compare poverty levels among Ecuador’s provinces.